Announcing AES-GEM (AES with Galois Extended Mode)

| | cryptography
By Scott Arciszewski Today, AES-GCM is one of two cipher modes used by TLS 1.3 (the other being ChaCha20-Poly1305) and the preferred method for encrypting data in FIPS-validated modules. But despite its overwhelming success, AES-GCM has been the root cause of some catastrophic failures: for example, Hanno Böck and Sean ... Read More
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Trail of Bits named a leader in cybersecurity consulting services

| | Press Release
Trail of Bits has been recognized as a leader in cybersecurity consulting services according to The Forrester Wave™: Cybersecurity Consulting Services, Q2 2024. In this evaluation, we were compared against 14 other top vendors and emerged as a leader for our services. Read the report on our website. What is ... Read More
Auditing the Ask Astro LLM Q&A app

Auditing the Ask Astro LLM Q&A app

Today, we present the second of our open-source AI security audits: a look at security issues we found in an open-source retrieval augmented generation (RAG) application that could lead to chatbot output poisoning, inaccurate document ingestion, and potential denial of service. This audit follows up on our previous work that ... Read More
Fuck RSA @ SummerCon 2019

Quantum is unimportant to post-quantum

| | cryptography
By Opal Wright You might be hearing a lot about post-quantum (PQ) cryptography lately, and it’s easy to wonder why it’s such a big deal when nobody has actually seen a quantum computer. But even if a quantum computer is never built, new PQ standards are safer, more resilient, and ... Read More

Disarming Fiat-Shamir footguns

By Opal Wright The Fiat-Shamir transform is an important building block in zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) and multi-party computation (MPC). It allows zero-knowledge proofs based on interactive protocols to be made non-interactive. Essentially, it turns conversations into documents. This ability is at the core of powerful technologies like SNARKs and STARKs ... Read More
EuroLLVM 2024 trip report

EuroLLVM 2024 trip report

By Marek Surovič and Henrich Lauko EuroLLVM is a developer meeting focused on projects under the LLVM Foundation umbrella that live in the LLVM GitHub monorepo, like Clang and—more recently, thanks to machine learning research—the MLIR framework. Trail of Bits, which has a history in compiler engineering and all things ... Read More

Themes from Real World Crypto 2024

In March, Trail of Bits engineers traveled to the vibrant (and only slightly chilly) city of Toronto to attend Real World Crypto 2024, a three-day event that hosted hundreds of brilliant minds in the field of cryptography. We also attended three associated events: the Real World Post-Quantum Cryptography (RWPQC) workshop, ... Read More
Finding mispriced opcodes with fuzzing

Finding mispriced opcodes with fuzzing

| | fuzzing
By Max Ammann Fuzzing—a testing technique that tries to find bugs by repeatedly executing test cases and mutating them—has traditionally been used to detect segmentation faults, buffer overflows, and other memory corruption vulnerabilities that are detectable through crashes. But it has additional uses you may not know about: given the ... Read More
Understanding Apple’s On-Device and Server Foundation Models release

Understanding Apple’s On-Device and Server Foundation Models release

| | machine learning
By Artem Dinaburg Earlier this week, at Apple’s WWDC, we finally witnessed Apple’s AI strategy. The videos and live demos were accompanied by two long-form releases: Apple’s Private Cloud Compute and Apple’s On-Device and Server Foundations Models. This blog post is about the latter. So, what is Apple releasing, and ... Read More
PCC: Bold step forward, not without flaws

PCC: Bold step forward, not without flaws

| | machine learning
By Adelin Travers Earlier this week, Apple announced Private Cloud Compute (or PCC for short). Without deep context on the state of the art of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) security, some sensible design choices may seem surprising. Conversely, some of the risks linked to this design are ... Read More