Mirai botnet that made headlines in 2016 for taking out infrastructure through
large-scale network attacks has become a reference point in the security
industry for the damage that large IoT botnets can inflict. Since its source
code was published and made available to anyone interested in building their
own botnet, many Mirai variants have shown up, each packing unique features.
While most are used for disruptive purposes, others seem to use the collective
power of compromised devices to mine for cryptocurrency.
researchers tracked the development of a Mirai-inspired botnet, dubbed
LiquorBot, which seems to be actively in development and has recently
incorporated Monero cryptocurrency mining features.
LiquorBot is written in Go (also known as Golang), which offers some
programming advantages over traditional C-style code, such as memory safety,
garbage collection, structural typing, and even CSP-style concurrency.
appears to use the same command and control server as a Mirai-related variant,
and they have even featured together in dropper scripts, meaning attackers used
both LiquorBot and the Mirai variant in various campaigns.
LiquorBot IoT botnet was identified using Bitdefender’s deceptive technologies,
when the first LiquorBot samples infected our honeypots in May 2019. Since
then, Bitdefender security researchers tracked the development of the main
package, as well as all its other versions associated with feature updates and
of Mirai written in Go
to several architectures (ARM, ARM64, x86, x64, MIPS)
- Incorporates cryptocurrency-mining
through SSH brute-forcing and exploitation of unpatched vulnerabilities in
select router models
The following table (Fig. 1) follows the evolution of the botnet, listing SHA-1 hashes, the development path of the main package and the date they were first seen by our honeypots telemetry. Though each version has samples associated to multiple CPU architectures, for simplicity, we have included only hashes for ARM64.
some of the samples analyzed include versioning strings, they do not seem to accurately
reflect the evolution of the botnet. For instance, the Oct 1st
sample is labeled “0.2” and it’s the one actually introducing the
cryptocurrency mining feature. This feature is not present in the July 24th
sample, labeled “0.6”, which features additional propagation methods.
is cross-compiled to several architectures, targeting a wide range of CPU
architectures ranging from ARM and ARM64 to x86, x64 and MIPS. During the
infection process, the dropper script downloads all the bot payloads, without
having any filtration logic based on the found CPU architecture.
dropper script itself is relatively short and involves fetching the binaries
from an attacker-controlled server. Another interesting feature of the script
is the use of “#!/bin/sh”, which is more reliable than “#!/bin/bash” when
pointing to the preferred POSIX-compatible system shell in any installation. In
addition, because the script does not appear to load any specific features
supported by “bash”, the “sh” variant chosen by the malware developers is
considered the default shell that system scripts should use.
The miner configuration script used by threat actors seems to set different hashrates for the CPU mining algorithm (Fig. 3)
Like Mirai, LiquorBot obfuscates its strings and stores them into a map. Each time an entry dis accessed, the string is decrypted by adding the vadlue 0x51 to each character. The figure below lists the decrypted strings for LiquorBot.
feature borrowed from Mirai ensures that a single bot runs on a machine by
attempting to bind to a port. The host and port used as arguments to “net.Listen” are from
the configuration map (entry number 9). Other versions of the bot have the port
set to 42007.
execution, the bot relaunches itself, while attempting to disguise the new
process as the sshd daemon.
bot updates the DNS resolver by writing to /etc/resolv.conf the following:
bot’s lifecycle contains a cleanup phase, in which it deletes any dropped files
(/tmp/.lmr,/tmp/.ldrop, /tmp/config.json) and erases bash history.
bot communicates with multiple servers:
- CnC; the bot reports vulnerable devices to this server and receives commands from it
- mining server
- server hosting the binaries
its evolution, the domains used for these purposes have been changed and
interchanged from the following:
periodically pings its C&C though a HTTP GET targeting this resource:
The query parameters represent fingerprinting
data for the device and bot: OS, bot version, CPU architecture, number of CPUs,
C&C can respond with one of the following commands:
first command downloads a resource from a provided URL into /tmp/.ldrop. The
second command does the same, but also executes the file using “sh -c”.
miner goroutine downloads the miner into /tmp/.lmr, formats the config and writes it to /tmp/config.json, then
runs the miner with the config. The config is the JSON found in the configuration map
formatted to fill out the server with the address of the mining server (entry 2
for host and entry 3 for port) and the username (randomly generated string
formed of 17 uppercase letters).
the analyzed LiquorBot samples, we have seen various methods of propagation.
Most versions use SSH brute-forcing as the sole propagation method.
samples from July 24th include SSH brute-forcing, by using a hardcoded list of
82 username/password combinations, while also using exploits for various models
of vulnerable routers.
terms of exploited vulnerabilities, LiquorBot exploits some critical CVEs
(CVE-2015-2051, CVE-2016-1555, CVE-2016-6277) as well as a series of command
injection and remote command execution vulnerabilities found in various router
models (CVE-2018-17173, CVE-2017-6884, CVE-2018-10562, CVE-2017-6077, CVE-2017-6334,
CVE-2016-5679, CVE-2018-9285, CVE-2013-3568, CVE-2019-12780).
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ardp.hldns.ru bpsuck.hldns.ru Wpceservice.hldns.rusystemservice.hldns.ru
Note: The information in this article was made available courtesy to Bitdefender research team.
*** This is a Security Bloggers Network syndicated blog from Bitdefender Labs authored by Liviu Arsene. Read the original post at: https://labs.bitdefender.com/2020/01/hold-my-beer-mirai-spinoff-named-liquorbot-incorporates-cryptomining/