The highly anticipated structural update to the MITRE ATT&CK framework was released July 8th, 2020. After a quiet first half of the year, it appears the ATT&CK team has been putting in lots of work into some significant redesign of the framework’s structure. This update introduces a new layer of abstraction: sub-techniques.

ATT&CK is a taxonomy of adversarial behavior comprised of tactics and techniques, the what and how of adversarial behavior. Tactics classify objectives attackers look to achieve, i.e. what they are trying to do. Whereas techniques classify specific behavior to achieve those objectives, i.e. how they do it. However, with 266 enterprise techniques and growing, ATT&CK needed a way to better organize and represent the knowledge it contained.

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I examined the structural problems within ATT&CK exactly one year ago in this two-part blog post on ontology and ATT&CK (part 1, part 2). There I argued that ad hoc tagging of techniques led to an unevenness of abstraction. Some techniques are very specific and others are very general. Moreover, some techniques are just types of other techniques. So, I concluded that a richer, more principled structure is needed to resolve those problems, and sub-techniques are a natural solution.

2 White Tigers
(Photo by Zvi Roger – Haifa Municipality)

Sub-techniques are specific techniques. In some ways, the analogy to the animal kingdom taxonomy is apt, where subspecies refer to specific population groups of a species. For instance, the Bengal tiger, Sunda Island tiger, Trinil tiger are all subspecies of tiger. This kind of taxonomic structure allows for more granularity and relationship modeling between categories.

Consider technique T1574, Hijack Execution Flow. Adversaries can execute their own payloads by hijacking the way operating systems run programs. This can be used to achieve persistence, evade defenses, and escalate privileges. (Read more...)