FIN7 Spear Phishing Campaign Targets Personnel Involved in SEC Filings

In late February 2017, FireEye as a Service (FaaS) identified a spear
phishing campaign that appeared to be targeting personnel involved
with United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings at
various organizations. Based on multiple identified overlaps in
infrastructure and the use of similar tools, tactics, and procedures
(TTPs), we have high confidence that this campaign is associated with
the financially motivated threat group tracked by FireEye as FIN7.

FIN7 is a financially motivated intrusion set that selectively
targets victims and uses spear phishing to distribute its malware. We
have observed FIN7 attempt to compromise diverse organizations for
malicious operations – usually involving the deployment of
point-of-sale malware – primarily against the retail and hospitality industries.

Spear Phishing Campaign

All of the observed intended recipients of the spear phishing
campaign appeared to be involved with SEC filings for their respective
organizations. Many of the recipients were even listed in their
company’s SEC filings. The sender email address was spoofed as EDGAR
<filings@sec.gov> and the attachment was named
“Important_Changes_to_Form10_K.doc” (MD5:
d04b6410dddee19adec75f597c52e386). An example email is shown in
Figure 1.

Figure 1: Example of a phishing email sent
during this campaign

We have observed the following TTPs with this campaign:

  • The malicious documents drop a VBS script that installs a
    PowerShell backdoor, which uses DNS TXT records for its command and
    control. This backdoor appears to be a new malware family that
    FireEye iSIGHT Intelligence has dubbed POWERSOURCE. POWERSOURCE is a
    heavily obfuscated and modified version of the publicly available
    tool DNS_TXT_Pwnage. The backdoor uses DNS TXT requests for command
    and control and is installed in the registry or Alternate Data
    Streams. Using DNS TXT records to communicate is not an entirely new
    finding, but it should be noted that this has been a rising trend
    since 2013 likely because it makes detection and hunting for command
    and control traffic difficult.
  • We also observed POWERSOURCE
    being used to download a second-stage PowerShell backdoor called
    TEXTMATE in an effort to further infect the victim machine. The
    TEXTMATE backdoor provides a reverse shell to attackers and uses DNS
    TXT queries to tunnel interactive commands and other data. TEXTMATE
    is “memory resident” – often described as “fileless” malware. This
    is not a novel technique by any means, but it’s worth noting since
    it presents detection challenges and further speaks to the threat
    actor’s ability to remain stealthy and nimble in operations.
  • In some cases, we identified a Cobalt Strike Beacon payload
    being delivered via POWERSOURCE. This particular Cobalt Strike
    stager payload was previously used in operations linked to
    FIN7.
  • We observed that the same domain hosting the Cobalt
    Strike Beacon payload was also hosting a CARBANAK backdoor sample
    compiled in February 2017. CARBANAK malware has been used heavily by
    FIN7 in previous operations.
Victims

Thus far, we have directly identified 11 targeted organizations in
the following sectors:

  • Financial services, with different victims having insurance,
    investment, card services, and loan focuses
  • Transportation
  • Retail
  • Education
  • IT
    services
  • Electronics

All these organizations are based in the United States, and many
have international presences. As the SEC is a U.S. regulatory
organization, we would expect recipients of these spear phishing
attempts to either work for U.S.-based organizations or be U.S.-based
representatives of organizations located elsewhere. However, it is
possible that the attackers could perform similar activity mimicking
other regulatory organizations in other countries.

Implications

We have not yet identified FIN7’s ultimate goal in this campaign, as
we have either blocked the delivery of the malicious emails or our
FaaS team detected and contained the attack early enough in the
lifecycle before we observed any data targeting or theft.  However, we
surmise FIN7 can profit from compromised organizations in several
ways. If the attackers are attempting to compromise persons involved
in SEC filings due to their information access, they may ultimately be
pursuing securities fraud or other investment abuse. Alternatively, if
they are tailoring their social engineering to these individuals, but
have other goals once they have established a foothold, they may
intend to pursue one of many other fraud types.

Previous FIN7 operations deployed multiple point-of-sale malware
families for the purpose of collecting and exfiltrating sensitive
financial data. The use of the CARBANAK malware in FIN7 operations
also provides limited evidence that these campaigns are linked to
previously observed CARBANAK operations leading to fraudulent banking
transactions, ATM compromise, and other monetization schemes.

Community Protection Event

FireEye implemented a Community Protection Event – FaaS, Mandiant,
Intelligence, and Products – to secure all clients affected by this
campaign. In this instance, an incident detected by FaaS led to the
deployment of additional detections by the FireEye Labs team after
FireEye Labs Advanced Reverse Engineering quickly analyzed the
malware. Detections were then quickly deployed to the suite of FireEye products.

The FireEye iSIGHT Intelligence MySIGHT Portal contains additional
information based on our investigations of a variety of topics
discussed in this post, including FIN7 and the POWERSOURCE and
TEXTMATE malware. Click here for
more information.

*** This is a Security Bloggers Network syndicated blog from Threat Research Blog authored by Threat Research Blog. Read the original post at: http://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2017/03/fin7_spear_phishing.html